Weight Management for Your Life

Weight Management for Your Life: Ten Steps to Prepare You for Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle

Back cover copy:

After reading the Ten Steps in Part 1 and doing the easy action steps exercises in Part 2, you will be well-prepared for adopting a healthy and satisfying lifestyle.

This book is for you if any of these apply …

  • You are a man or woman wanting to adopt a healthier lifestyle
  • You are discouraged by dieting (Who isn’t?)
  • You are overweight and feel helpless to do much about it
  • You want clear, relevant, research-based information about a major global health problem
  • You are disappointed in yourself for lack of “willpower”
  • You suspect there may not be an easy, magic answer to your problem with weight (there isn’t!)
  • You are bewildered by the overwhelming mass of conflicting information about diet, exercise, and lifestyle we are all exposed to on a daily basis

___________________________________

“This book debunks myths about weight loss, empowers people by giving them the information and tools they need to ‘change the things they can change,’ and, most importantly, sets people up for success.”
– Louise Lettre-Klingensmith, LMSW (clinical counselor, Columbia, SC)

“At last, a weight management book that calls for personal responsibility and empowers the reader to do it ‘your way.’ I recommend this book for all health care practitioners and individuals frustrated in dealing with weight loss.”

– Edith Hessel, RN, MSN, cPNP (Washington, DC)

“Weight Management for Your Life presents a complex area of research thoroughly and clearly. It makes a case for common sense long-term lifestyle change in a way that empowers and encourages people to compassionately engage with themselves, develop a plan, and carry it out. …It is exceptionally well written, researched, and well reasoned.”

– Patricia Feigley, MSW (clinical practice of psychotherapy and yoga instructor,Columbia, SC)

“Dr. Goldman acknowledges the importance of integrating one’s feelings with one’s thoughts and behavior. … Activities for the reader and Internet support are additional tools making this self-help book all you wanted to know about weight loss.”

– Linda Meyers, M.Ed. (St. Louis, MO)
_______________________________________


CONTENTS

Preface

Part 1

Introduction

Chapter 1 — Step 1: State a reason to change your behavior

Chapter 2 — Step 2: Choose a realistic weight range

Chapter 3 — Step 3: Learn about “willpower” and self-change

Chapter 4 — Step 4: Learn how to manage stress

Chapter 5 — Step 5: Guard against “willpower fatigue”

Chapter 6 — Step 6: Learn the basics about diet and exercise

Chapter 7 — Step 7: Learn from others’ experience

Chapter 8 — Step 8: Consider your family and social network

Chapter 9 — Step 9: Learn about alcohol, drugs, and addictive behavior

Chapter 10 — Step 10: Create a plan and “routines”

Part 2

Chapter 11 — Empower yourself to change your behavior – easy action
steps to get you started

Chapter 12 — Research on weight management

Chapter 13 — Advanced techniques for behavior change

Chapter 14 — Summary and conclusion

Acknowledgements

Notes

Index

_________________________________________

Preface

Have you ever said, about managing your weight, “I know what I have to do, I just need to do it!”? I must have heard some version of this statement hundreds of times. Most people know about eating less and exercising more, and also know it is not easy to do on a consistent basis. I appreciate this dilemma as well as anyone, which is why I decided to organize what I have learned over the years in the format of a self-help book.

As a physician for over 35 years, most of that time practicing as a Board Certified psychiatrist, I have witnessed hundreds of people struggling with managing their weight. My experience as a psychiatrist is relevant, because much of my practice has consisted of helping people become more aware of their options, recognize and eliminate self-defeating patterns, develop skills that will help them maximize their strengths, and learn to make decisions that are in their best long-term interest. I have never had much affection for the “victim role” that some people prefer, and have worked hard to increase feelings of empowerment in myself and others.

I have observed the weight loss and exercise self-help literature for decades, and have come to the conclusion that most of it is misleading because it panders to our desire for a quick and easy solution to a difficult problem. Few books about weight management deal with the subject of self-empowerment seriously or in much depth or breadth. My objective in writing this book is to summarize relatively simple ways to begin to overcome the problem of eating too much and exercising too little.

I said the solution was simple, but that does not mean it is easy. There is a big difference between the two concepts.

The solution is simple because it only involves engaging one’s mind to make a commitment to eat less and exercise more. To maintain your weight, calories taken in must be in balance with calories expended through metabolism and activity. More or less eating, and more or less activity, affect the ratio. All of the variables are under the control of voluntary behavior. If more calories go in than out, you have weight gain – only 100 extra calories a day can add ten pounds in a year! Weight loss results from changing the ratio in the other direction: reducing calories in and/or increasing calories out. Simple.

At the same time, using your mind (or “willpower”) to change the way you eat and move can be very difficult. Most people do not really know how to fully engage their mental and emotional resources in a way that will get them through both the initial difficulty of changing behavior and the lifelong commitment it takes to maintain the healthy behavior.

WHO THIS BOOK IS FOR

This is a self-help book for people who want the basic information and skills necessary for choosing a healthy weight range and maintaining it for life. It is for people who suspect or know for sure that the power needed to adopt a healthier lifestyle will come from within themselves, even though they may need help and support to fully tap and focus that energy. Please use it as a source of encouragement and guidance to assist you in becoming healthier and improving your quality of life.

Weight Management for Your Life does not feature a diet or weight-loss plan in the usual sense. It contains no recipes, recommends no products, nor does it offer a “quick start” program. Instead, it will give you the tools you need to choose a way to eat and exercise for life, and reading it will improve your ability to evaluate diet and exercise programs that are being marketed through books, magazines, ads, and infomercials.

The advice in this book is not intended for people who have a severe eating disorder, tend to be underweight, or have extreme obesity and are looking for a way to lose 100 pounds.

On the other hand, please do read this if you are mildly or moderately overweight, if your weight is in a healthy range but you are concerned about possible weight gain in the future, or if you don’t really know what a desirable weight range should be. This book will help you determine whether you are ready to make a commitment to proactive lifelong weight management and, if not, what actions and decisions might bring you to that point. Also read it if you are concerned about the health of a friend or loved one who may be overweight.

Although this book is based on my many years of experience with weight management as an individual, family member, and health professional, I wrote it from a holistic perspective. It is my strong belief that weight control, though extremely important, is only one part of a lifelong commitment to health and happiness.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

The book is organized so as to make the difficult tasks involved in behavior change as simple and natural as possible. All you need to do is read the introduction and the next ten chapters. Each chapter is organized so you can very quickly discover “what you need to know” and then explore the topics in more detail in the rest of the chapter. The small numbers (superscript) that appear in the text (“footnotes” or “endnotes”) refer you to reference material or additional information arranged by chapter in the final section of the book.

After reading the ten steps in Part 1, use the easy action steps in Chapter Eleven to begin to apply what you have learned. These action steps are designed to help you translate the content of the reading into behavior, one step at a time. Additional chapters in Part 2 give you even more detailed information than the previous chapters. If you do most of the exercises in Chapter Eleven, you will be able to say with confidence, “I know what I want to do, and I am doing it!”

_______________________________________

Introduction

“Whether we live to a vigorous old age lies not so much in our stars or our genes as in ourselves.”

– George Vaillant

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Whether we live a long and healthy life and feel satisfied in old age is at least in part determined by the way we think and what we do to help ourselves. A reasonably healthy lifestyle, including weight control, exercise, moderation in drinking and no smoking, can make a huge difference in our long term health and happiness. Adopting a positive “glass half-full” attitude, valuing lifelong learning and interests, and nurturing supportive relationships are the other keys to aging well. The ten steps in the chapters that follow this introduction will give you the knowledge you need to make significant changes in behavior in order to better manage your weight and generally improve your health and happiness.

MORE DETAILS

How to be “Happy-Well”

To “see the glass of life as half-full, not half-empty,” and to “understand how to savor joy and how to turn lemons into lemonade,” according to Harvard research psychiatrist George Vaillant, are the thinking patterns of people who age successfully. In his book Aging Well he describes in detail the long-term outcomes (at ages 70 – 80) of three groups of people who were studied with thorough evaluations every few years from youth through old age. The research subjects were 724 men and 682 women, 63% of whom lived to old age; all were initially included in the research because they seemed “normal” and were free of any obvious illnesses or disabilities.

Vaillant writes about factors that seem to predict which research subjects turn out to be Sad-Sick (including dead) and which Happy-Well. One description of the Happy-Well group highlights their “learning to live with neither too much desire and adventure nor too much caution and self-care. … Rather, successful aging means giving to others joyously whenever one is able, receiving from others gratefully whenever one needs it, and being greedy enough to develop one’s own self in between.”

After reviewing the data on all 1406 subjects Dr. Vaillant was pleasantly surprised to learn that most of the significant predictors of positive outcome were things we have some measure of control over:

“The protective factors … – a stable marriage, the ability to make lemonade from lemons, avoiding cigarettes, modest use of alcohol, regular exercise, high education, and maintaining normal weight – allow us to predict thirty years in the future. … The good news is that most of us – if we start young and try hard – can voluntarily control our weight, our exercise, and our abuse of cigarettes and/or alcohol, at least by the time we are fifty. And with hard work and/or therapy we can improve our relationships with our most significant other and use fewer maladaptive defenses. I do not wish to blame the victim, but I do want to accentuate the positive. Whether we live to a vigorous old age lies not so much in our stars or our genes as in ourselves.”

The results of these studies and Dr. Vaillant’s thorough analysis give a huge boost to those of us who believe that our conscious health-related decisions are extremely important in determining how well we live and enjoy old age.

What is most relevant to weight management about Vaillant’s work and the other research on lifestyle choice is the message that one can learn new ways of thinking about one’s situation and can practice new behaviors that will result in a happier and healthier life. I have found this to be the case personally and in my psychiatric practice.

This book provides a guide to get you started in changing your lifestyle. The approach involves education and behavior change. In my experience, people have only bits and pieces of the knowledge they need to successfully alter their lifestyle. We are bombarded with information and misinformation, opinions and gimmicks, and this can be overwhelming. The following chapters present ten basic steps to prepare you to evaluate the information you come across and, more importantly, help you engage the power of your mind to improve your life.

__________________________________

Chapter 1

Step 1: State a reason to change your behavior

“We have goals because that’s how our brains evolved: the people without goals became extinct because they simply could not compete.”

– Marvin Minsky

____________________________________

Index

AA, Alcoholics Anonymous 31, 32

abdominal obesity 12, 13, 21, 95 – 96

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) 60

action stage (of self-change) 36, 41, 46, 71

activity, non-exercise see NEAT

addiction 34, 85 – 88, 103, 106 – 107

Aging Well 7 – 8, 15 – 16, 71

alcohol 8, 60, 85 – 88, 103, 115, 119

alignment (of thoughts, feelings, and behavior; congruence) 35, 98

anger 49, 100

anorexia 12

anti-anxiety medications 65, 68

antidepressant (effect, medication) 65, 68, 88,

antioxidant supplements 56

anti-psychotic medication 88

anxiety 35, 40, 50, 65, 68, 82

appetite (craving, hunger) 24, 28, 32, 57, 74, 87, 90, 107, 109, 114 – 116, 118

arthritis 13, 16, 23

Atkins diet 63, 105

automatic (and emotional) eating 39, 40, 42, 59, 114 – 116

balance (in life) 31

bariatric surgery 56, 110

Baumeister, Roy 28, 46

Beck Diet Solution 24, 74 – 75, 87, 113 – 117

Beck, Aaron 113

Beck, Judith 24 – 25, 74, 87, 113 – 117

behavior change 3, 9, 37, 63, 113 – 120

belly fat see abdominal obesity

bias (and lack of bias) 13, 17 – 18, 61, 106, 111

binge eating 40 – 42, 98, 108, 118

Binks, Martin 45

biological reductionism 108 – 110

bio-psycho-social factors 106 – 108

BMI, see Body Mass Index

Body Mass Index (BMI) 12 – 13, 21, 95 – 96, 127

boredom, eating from 40, 99

Bowen Center for the Study of the Family 81

Bowen, Murray 81

brain, cerebral cortex 28, 107

breakfast, importance of 62, 74 – 75

bulimia 12

burnout (also see decision fatigue and willpower fatigue) 29, 51

CAGE 88

calorie counting 62 – 64, 119

calories 2, 22, 33 – 35, 40, 55, 57 – 65, 69, 73 – 74, 86 – 87, 90 – 91, 96 – 97, 106, 110, 119

cancer 12, 110

carbohydrates (carbs) 57 – 58, 60 – 61, 87, 105

cardiovascular effects of exercise 65, 67

case examples 15, 22, 33, 41, 71, 81

CBT see cognitive behavioral therapy

central adiposity see abdominal obesity

centripetal obesity see abdominal obesity

change model see stages of self-change

childhood obesity 17

cholesterol 12, 61, 105, 111

cognitive behavioral therapy 35, 103, 113 – 120

cognitive therapy see cognitive behavioral therapy

comfort food, comfort eating 40 – 42, 82, 98

comfort range (weight) 22

commitment 2 – 3, 11, 13 – 14, 26, 30 – 31, 36, 48, 51, 71 – 72, 75, 89, 92, 99, 114, 117 – 118

congruence see alignment

conscious volition 2, 8, 26, 31, 85, 108, 111

Consumer Reports 61

contemplation stage see stages of self-change

counselor see health professional

craving see appetite

Cristakis 79

Davis, Carolyn 34

decision fatigue 46, 50

delay of gratification 28, 40 – 41

demoralization 47

depression 13, 29, 35, 43, 66, 68

deprivation and self-denial 26 – 27, 52, 63, 118 – 119

determinism 32, 108

diabetes (also pre-diabetes, borderline diabetes, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome) 12 – 16, 23, 72, 110

DiClemente, Carlo 36

diet 2, 26, 27, 29, 61, 62 – 64, 72, 91, 105 – 106, 109 – 110, 113 – 117, 119, 121

diet coach 116

diet drugs 56, 67 – 68, 101, 121

diet fads/gimmicks 15, 31, 41, 55 – 56, 62 – 63

diet gurus 26, 31

diet, lifetime eating pattern (habitual nourishment) 60 – 62, 64, 68 – 69, 74 – 76, 80, 100 – 101, 113 – 117

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 60 – 61, 67, 96

dietary supplements 56

dieters 25, 47, 113 – 114, 116

dieting, yo-yo (roller coaster) 29, 50 – 51, 75, 81, 106, 116,

diets, research on 80, 105 – 106

diets, two types of (eating plans and counting) 63

differentiation 81

discomfort food 41

Dorfman, Lisa 116

drugs 56, 67 – 68, 85, 87 – 88, 101, 103, 108

easy action steps 3, 19, 53, 95 – 103, 119

eating (and overeating) 2, 12, 21 – 22, 29, 30 – 31, 33, 35, 37 – 38, 39 – 43, 46, 50, 53, 55 – 56, 58 – 60, 62 – 64, 68 – 69, 73 – 76, 81 – 83, 85 – 87, 90, 96 – 100, 106 – 111, 114 – 116, 118 – 120

Ellis, Albert 113

emotional eating 39, 40, 42, 59, 114 – 116

empowerment 1, 34, 37, 48, 95

energy density (food) 56 – 57, 106

exercise, aerobic 65 – 66

exercise, antidepressant effects 65

exercise, isometric 64

exercise, Kegel 66

exercise, of core muscles 66

exercise, physical 2, 8, 14, 18, 34, 42 – 43, 55, 59, 64 – 67, 69, 73 – 76, 80, 90 – 92, 99, 101, 110, 115

exercise, spontaneous 55, 64, 87, 91, 101, 115

exercise, strength-building 66 – 67, 91

exercise, warm-up before 67

fad diets see diet fads/gimmicks

Fairburn, Christopher 118

false hope 29

family 37, 49, 77 – 78, 81 – 83, 88, 98, 102 – 103, 116, 122 – 123

fast-food culture 59

fat in diet 40, 57 – 62, 68, 74, 87, 106

fatigue see burnout, decision fatigue, willpower fatigue

fatty liver 13

fear of failure 48

fear of success 49

Flier, Jeff 31

food allergies/intolerance 56

food labeling 57 – 58, 100, 119

food preferences 57, 64, 69, 100

food restriction 62, 74, 108

Fowler 79

framing see reframing

free will 26, 30, 32, 97, 109, 111

free won’t 28

French paradox 59

GABA 107

genes and genetic 1, 8, 18, 22, 26, 36, 65, 106, 108, 109, 125

ghrelin 109

glycemic index 57

goals and goal setting 11, 13 – 15, 21 – 24, 33, 35 – 36, 43, 46 – 49, 51, 53, 64, 72, 75, 78, 86, 89 – 92, 96, 103, 109, 116 – 117, 119

Graham, Sylvester 26

habits, healthy 30, 33 – 34, 47, 64, 69, 77, 81, 108, 118

happiness 3, 7 – 9, 18, 30, 40, 43, 51, 52 – 53, 58, 73

health problems 11 – 13, 23, 109

health professional (therapist/counselor/physician) 1, 13, 18, 26, 32, 35, 41, 48, 53, 68, 72, 75, 77, 78, 80, 82, 87, 88, 99, 101, 103, 111,

healthy behavior/lifestyle see lifestyle and habits

helplessness and learned helplessness 29, 48

hierarchy of needs (Maslow) 47

holistic 3

hormone(s) 18, 109

hunger see appetite

impatience 49

impulsive eating see emotional eating

inspiration 39, 43, 78

insulin 12, 57, 105, 109

intentionality 26, 42, 109

Internet 14, 22, 58, 59, 64, 81, 87, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 116, 119

junk food 42, 53, 55, 80

Kolata, Gina 33, 72, 109 – 110

labels see food labeling

language (importance of) 30, 34, 41

learned helplessness see helplessness

leptin 109

Levine, James 64 – 65, 107

Levitan, Robert 34

lifestyle 2, 7, 9, 15, 26, 31, 34, 46, 52, 53, 56, 57, 60, 64, 68, 73, 92, 100, 102, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 118

liposuction 110

long term perspective 1, 7 – 8, 14, 30 – 31, 34, 40 – 41, 62 – 63, 73 – 74, 76, 92, 117

malnutrition 23

marshmallow experiment 28, 35

Maslow, Abraham 48

meat 58 – 59, 61, 69

meditation 43, 99

mental illness 41

metabolism (metabolic rate) 2, 65

mindfulness 42 – 43, 59, 99, 115

mindless eating see automatic eating

Minsky, Marvin 11

Mischel, Walter 28

mission statement see personal mission statement

moderation 7, 57

mood 40, 58, 88

mood stabilizers 88

motivation 26, 116,

multi-tasking 16, 42, 66

National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) 73 – 74, 102

NEAT (non-exercise activity thermogenesis) 64 – 65, 101, 107

network, social see social network

network medicine 80

neuroimaging (studies) 26, 28, 107,

non-exercise activity see NEAT

Norcross, John 36

Nutrition Action Health Letter 61

nutritionism 56

obesity 3, 12, 14, 17 – 18, 21, 23, 26, 40, 59 – 60, 64, 68, 75, 79, 96, 107, 109, 110 – 111, 117 – 118

obesity by choice 107

obesity epidemic 59 – 60, 79

obesity hypoventilation syndrome 23

obesity, types of 12, 13, 95 – 96, 107, 109

optimists 29, 51, 97

organic food 26, 69, 101

Ornish diet 105

overeating see eating

overweight 3, 11 – 12, 15 – 18, 21 – 24, 31, 36, 52, 65, 79, 96, 105, 107, 109

patience 25, 49

perfectionism 18, 51

perseverance 25, 48

personal growth 31, 47

personal mission statement 14, 91, 96

pessimists 29, 51

physical exercise see exercise, physical

plan, planning (for weight management) 2, 25 – 27, 34, 36 – 38, 41 – 42, 47 – 48, 51 – 53, 63 – 64, 68 – 69, 74 – 76, 77, 80 – 83, 86 – 88, 89 – 92, 98 – 99, 101, 103, 113, 115 – 116, 118 – 119

plateau, weight loss 29, 115, 119

Pollan, Michael 56

portion distortion 59, 101

portion size 55, 59 – 60, 73, 101, 106 – 107, 110, 119

posture 66

preferences, food see food preferences

prefrontal cortex (of brain) 28, 107

prescription drugs 88

primary goals 15

priorities 48, 91 – 92

Prochaska, James 36

procrastination 31, 50

protein 57 – 58, 60 – 61, 87

psychosocial factors 79, 109

quality of life 2, 43, 56, 66, 74, 91, 103

RAPS4 88

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy 113

rational thinking 28, 35, 42, 43, 45, 49, 50, 51, 81

reframing 25, 27, 32 – 35, 86, 90, 98, 114 – 115

relapse 36 – 37, 51, 98, 119

relationships 7, 8, 36, 39, 43, 47, 69, 77, 83, 102, 108

relaxation 39, 42 – 43, 99

research studies 8 – 9, 13, 18, 21 – 24, 26, 27 – 28, 34 – 36, 40 – 41, 46, 56, 57, 58 – 59, 62, 63 – 65, 68 – 69, 72, 79 – 80, 102, 105 – 111, 116, 118

resistance to change 45 – 46, 48 – 49, 53, 99 – 100

respiratory problems 13, 23

responsibility 30 – 31, 50, 97

restrained eating 108

Rethinking Thin 33, 72, 109

risk factor 12 – 13, 23 – 24, 34, 64, 67

roller-coaster pattern see dieting, yo-yo

routines, importance of 25, 47, 89, 91 – 92, 101, 103

sabotaging thoughts and behavior 47, 51, 53, 75, 80, 87, 99, 114, 116

screening tests for problem drinking 88

sedentary (lifestyle) 64 – 65, 67, 107

self-change see stages of self-change

self-control 18, 25 – 26, 28, 46, 85

self-defeating habits and patterns 1, 28, 31, 40 – 41, 43, 49, 51 – 52, 73, 118 – 120

self-denial see deprivation

self-discipline 17 – 18, 73

self-empowerment see empowerment

self-esteem 26, 48

self-fulfilling prophecy 32

self-help books 1 – 2, 46, 113, 118

self-medication 12, 87, 103

self-sabotage see sabotaging thoughts

self-talk 114, 118

Seligman, Martin 29

Selling Sickness 108

serving size 58, 62

set point 22

sexuality 43, 99

significant other 8, 80, 99

silence 42 – 43, 99

sleep-apnea 13, 23

slow and steady weight loss 49, 117

smoking (cigarettes) 7, 8, 67

snack(s)/snacking 16, 35, 41, 55, 58, 59, 69, 76, 90 – 91, 118 – 119

social network 18, 77 – 81, 102, 107

social stigma see stigma

social support see support

sodium 58, 61

soft drinks 55, 57

South Beach diet 63

special occasions 52, 115, 119

spontaneous exercise see exercise, spontaneous

stages of self-change 25, 36 – 37, 41, 46, 71, 98

starving (see also appetite) 24

stigma 17 – 18, 23, 52, 96

stimulants see diet drugs

stinking thinking (see also sabotaging thoughts) 114

stomach-reducing surgery 56, 110

strength training 66 – 67, 91

stress 37, 39 – 43, 46, 78, 98, 102, 106, 115, 117

stress buffering 78, 102

sub-goals 89

success stories 71 – 76

sugar 40, 55, 57 – 58, 60, 69, 86, 87, 91, 106, 120

support/supportive relationships 2, 7, 36, 39, 47, 64, 72, 78, 80, 86, 115 – 116

surgery for obesity (bariatric) 56, 110

Svetkey, Laura 80

therapist see health professional

thermic effect of food 65

tipping point 23

trans-fats 57, 61

triggers (for overeating) 76, 86, 115 – 116

type 2 diabetes see diabetes

Vaillant, George 7 – 9, 15 – 16, 71

variety (in food) 56, 61, 68 – 69

vegetables 26, 33, 55, 57, 60 – 62, 101, 120

vicious cycle 40, 81

victim role 1

visceral fat see abdominal obesity

vitamins 56

Volumetrics Eating Plan 62 – 63

voluntary behavior see conscious volition

waist circumference see abdominal obesity

walking 34, 42 – 43, 59, 65 – 66, 73, 90 – 91, 101, 119

walking workstation 65

Wansink, Brian 40, 59

wants, vs. goals 13 – 15

water drinking (and intoxication) 58

weakness 22, 41

weighing 47, 62, 72, 100, 115

Weight Watchers 62 – 64

weight, desired range 2 – 3, 11, 14, 21 – 24, 49, 57, 60, 72, 90, 96, 114, 118

weight, losing 1 – 3, 12 – 16, 21 – 24, 25, 29, 31, 33, 36, 41, 43, 47, 49, 51, 53, 56. 58, 60, 63, 65 – 67, 71 – 76, 79 – 80, 83, 86 – 88, 90 – 91, 102, 105 – 111, 114 – 118

weight, maintaining 2, 8, 11, 14, 21 – 24, 36 – 37, 49, 57, 60, 66, 68, 71 – 75, 80, 108 – 109, 114, 117 – 118

Wells, Orson 45

white carbohydrates 57

whole grain foods 26, 55, 57, 61

willpower 2, 14, 18, 25 – 38, 43 – 44, 45 – 47, 50 – 51, 53, 97, 99 – 100, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114

willpower fatigue 28, 45 – 47, 53, 99

win-win 44, 79

won’t power 27 – 28, 30, 34, 36, 97

Yoga 43, 66, 72, 101

yo-yo see dieting, yo-yo

Zone diet 63, 105

Zukowska, Zofia 40


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